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Developmental Milestones of 1-2 Years Old Baby and Activities

Baby develops the fastest from birth to 5 year old. These changes take place across various domains of development i.e.
1. Cognitive
2. Physical (Fine and Gross Motor)
3. Socio-emotional and
4. Language.

Most children follow a certain pattern of growth and development or achieve certain skills/abilities at a particular stage in developmental. These are called developmental milestones. However, it is important to note that every child grows and develops at their own pace, and might achieve a few milestones faster or slower than usual. If you feel concerned about your child not achieving a milestone, contact your paediatrician.

Cognitive Development 

  • Copies gestures.
  • Continues to explore things in various ways.
  • Has a better understanding of object permanence – finds hidden objects easily.
  • Has a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationship. 
  • The ability to remember is improving.
  • Recognizes or knows familiar people and associates them to their names.
  • Looks and points at the right object or picture, when named (e.g. ball, car, body parts – nose, hair, eyes, etc.).
  • Begins to understand what certain objects are used for (e.g. comb – combing hair, broom – sweeping the floor, etc.).
  • Like to experiment while playing (e.g. what happens if I put a toy inside the water bucket?)
  • Begins to use trial and error while playing to solve problems (eg- tries on various lids for a bottle/container till they find the right one).
  • Might begin to use mental representations while playing (e.g. using a comb to ‘talk on a telephone’, etc.).
  • States preferences when given choices e.g. chooses from various candies.
  • Understands simple one-step questions and instructions like “Where is the ball?” (by 18 months).
  • Understands simple two-step questions and instructions like “Pick up the ball and put it in the box.” (by 24 months). 
  • Begins to develop an understanding of similarities and differences – might be able to group items by shape, primary colours, etc.
  • Begins to develop a basic understanding of certain concepts like size, day and night, one and many, etc. 
  • Begins to become aware of daily routine activities like bathing, naptime, feed time, etc.
  • Recognizes self when looking in the mirror.
  • Has some basic understanding of spatial awareness (e.g. up-down, above-below, inside-outside).
  • Attention span can range from 2-3 minutes (16-19 mths) to 3-6 minutes (by 2 yrs) (Keeps increasing with age and might require adult assistance to stay focused). 

Physical Development

  • Sits without assistance (begins to sit on a small chair or stool).
  • Cruises – uses the support of something/someone (e.g furniture) to walk.  
  • Begins to stand on their own.
  • Might take a few steps without support. 
  • Begins walking, unassisted, by 15-18 months (begins running shortly, thereafter).
  • Running skills improve by 22 months but may still face difficulty stopping suddenly.
  • Begins to integrate other actions/movements while walking (e.g- stopping, squatting and standing, stopping and waving goodbye).
  • Begins to climb stairs while holding on for support (uses 2 feet on each step).
  • Might be able to walk backwards, a few steps.
  • Starts moving/shaking/dancing to music.
  • Jumps down from a low height.
  • Kicks a ball (not very accurately). 
  • Plays ‘roll the ball’ (but rolls the ball with moderate accuracy).
  • Enjoys playing with push and pull toys.
  • Uses index (pointer) finger to poke and point.
  • Uses entire arm, when drawing or painting on a large surface. 
  • Might undress simple clothes like clothes without buttons or zippers (e.g. pulling down pants with elastic waistband).
  • Engages in various fine motor activities like:

– Turning pages in a book more efficiently (2-3 pages at a time).

– Holding various things like spoons, blocks, etc. (might build 3-4 block towers)

– Putting on and taking off lids from containers (if not too tight).

– Throwing a ball overhand.

– Tearing a piece of paper.

– Stringing beads with medium sized holes onto a stick/sturdy wire.

– Scribbling with crayons or pencils (may copy a straight line drawn).

Socio-emotional Development

  • Still remains shy or nervous with strangers.
  • Cries when the parent/primary caregiver leaves and can be clingy when they return.
  • Has a favourite thing/toy/person, etc.
  • Repeats sounds or actions to get attention.
  • Shows a range of emotions (e.g. fear, joy, impatience, frustrations, displeasure, anger, pride, etc.) and related behaviour (e.g. laughter, temper tantrums, etc.)
  • Identifies their own face in the mirror.
  • Asserts their wants/desires by saying “no” more frequently.
  • Might laugh along with other people as a way to be accepted.
  • Might use a blanket or soft toy to feel secure (in the absence of the parent).
  • Tries to show independence by using ‘mine’, ‘I want’ or ‘I do’ while interacting with others.
  • Begins to engage in more socio-dramatic play (e.g. feeding a doll, cooking food, talking over the telephone).
  • Might initiate a few games like ‘roll/pass the ball’ with familiar adults.
  • Might begin to engage in parallel play (playing alongside others without interacting with them) by the time they are 2 years old.
  • Shares more willingly with adults rather than children.
  • Begins to understand basic courtesies like ‘thank you’.
  • Has a desire to do things independently but lacks the ability to do so.
  • Enjoys doing simple tasks to ‘help’ adults (e.g. picking up shoes and putting them on the shoe-rack).

Language Development

  • Continues to babble while developing vocabulary.
  • Picks up on clues like shaking head for “no”   or waving for “bye-bye”.
  • Understands and responds to simple spoken words/sentences (e.g. Give mama the ball) by 18 months.
  • Combines words and body language to make themself better understood e.g. Points to a dog and says, “doh” for “Look, there’s a dog.”
  • Imitates various noises/sounds like animal sounds.
  • Begins to use a modulate tone while talking to make sounds more speech-like.
  • Tries to say the names of frequently seen people (e.g. mama, dada, nana, etc.)
  • Begins to use the words ‘yes’ and ‘no’ with purpose.
  • Begins using simple two-word sentences (e.g. “Mommy go”) by 18 to 24 months.
  • Might begin asking questions like “What is … ?” by 2 years.
  • Shows an enthusiasm to communicate. 
  • Vocabulary keeps expanding with exposure to more words. 
  • Pronunciation is still not clear and might need translation for outsiders. 
  • Begin to imitate words immediately after hearing them.
  • Picks up/learns a new word almost every other day by 18 months (Might know more words than they can say).

By 1 year, says 4-6 simple words.

By 18 months, 10 to 15 words.

By 2 years, about 100 or more words.

Feeding and Sleeping Information 

  • Feeds self with fingers and spoon. 
  • Drinks from a cup more proficiently and without help.
  • Might take an afternoon nap.
  • Tends to sleep for 10 to 12 hours at night, peacefully.

Activities and Games for 1 year old:

 

What’s That?

Look outside the house window/balcony and point out to the various things like tree, birds, street light, clouds, sun, animals, vehicles etc. Make animal or vehicle sounds and then encourage them to imitate you e.g. cat goes meow. What colour is the cat? Brown and white. With repetition, your child will start recognizing. – Develops Memory and Association. Fosters language.

Let’s Match It:

Make a set of real vegetables and fruits eg: 2 tomatoes, 2 banana etc. Keep one with you and other with your child. Now you put forward one item and your child has to match it. Also encourage them to repeat the name of the vegetable/fruits after you – Develops visual discrimination skills.

 

Up and Down (1.6+ years):

Simple walk up and down the stairs, jump together holding their hand – Develops eye-leg co-ordination and muscle strength (Gross Motor)

 

For more activities like above, download Jyppzer app. Here you can find 300+ age appropriate parent-child activities and games that you can do with simple household materials. Its, fun and educational. Its created by child development experts and fosters skills like cognitive, language, socio-emotional, physical and multiple intelligence. 

 

App Link via Mob: https://onelink.to/j55dmm

Related Article: 

Developmental Milestones for 0-3 Months Baby

Developmental Milestones for 3-6 Months Baby

Developmental Milestones for 6-9 Months Baby

Developmental Milestones for 9-12 Months Baby

Developmental Milestones for 2-3 Years Toddler 

Developmental Milestones for 3-4 Years Toddler

Developmental Milestones for 4-5 Years Child

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